[72], In France, the Parlements had taken the lead in attacking the Jesuits. The King of Sardinia would be compensated with certain territories in Lombardy; while the Sardinians would return Naples, in exchange for Parma and Plaisance. "Denigrer, Esperer, Assumer La Realite. Married on 21 December 1784 to Jules de Boysseulh (her step-brother; son of the first marriage of her mother's husband), with whom she had one daughter. Learn more about Louis XV in this article. [105] The King continued his grand construction projects, including the opera theater of the Palace of Versailles, completed for the celebration of the wedding of the Dauphin and Marie-Antoinette, and the new Place Louis XV (now Place de la Concorde) in Paris, whose centerpiece was an equestrian statue of the King, modeled after that of Louis XIV on the Place Vendôme. As the hours passed, the red eruptions of the disease grew worse, and the doctors began to fear for his life. Because his parents and his only surviving brother had all died in 1712, he became king at the age of five on the death of Louis XIV (September 1, 1715). The new taxes were extremely unpopular with the aristocracy and wealthy; Silhouette was dismissed after eight months, and his name became the common expression for paper cutout made from a shadow, which, like his ministry, lasted only a moment. His grandson and successor Louis XVI would inherit a kingdom in need of financial and political reform, which ultimately would lead to the French Revolution of 1789. In early 1770 the Spanish governor of Buenos Aires sent five warships full of troops to the islands, ordering the British to leave. The King was offended by her refusal and thereafter never shared her bed. The King's guards seized Damien, and the King ordered them to hold him but not harm him. Louis XV was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710 during the reign of his great-grandfather Louis XIV. In this manner they had overthrown the financial system of John Law, had helped to procure the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1764, and had, for a time, disrupted the provincial administration of Brittany. In addition, at the age of fifteen (1777), she received the further amount of 12,000 livres as a renewed pension. In front of the notary Mr. Arnoult, on 12 January 1772 was granted to Amélie de Norville a pension of 2,000 livres. France's mediation in the war between the Holy Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire led to the Treaty of Belgrade (September 1739), which favoured the Ottoman Empire, beneficiary of a Franco-Ottoman alliance against the Habsburgs since the early 16th century. The powers of the Parlement of Paris alone were largely unchanged. The Parlements of Toulouse, Besançon and Rouen protested, but the King persisted. The two men advocated removing as many restrictions as possible from the economy, to encourage greater production and trade. His major architectural projects were the work of his favorite court architect, Ange-Jacques Gabriel. On 3 March 1766, with only a few hours notice, he traveled in person from Versailles to the meeting of the Parlement of Paris at the Palais de la Cité and appeared before the members. "[75] The Parlement members of Besançon remained in exile. He had no accredited Ambassadors in Poland, Prussia or Russia during most of the period, and stood by while Russia imposed its own candidate for King of Poland, and when Turkey and Russia went to war in 1768–70.[99]. Thus Louis Augustus was the King of France, Louis XV and his wife Marie Leszczynski grandson. Louis XV. Although he proclaimed that he would henceforth rule without a chief minister, he was too indolent and lacking in self-confidence to coordinate the activities of his secretaries of state and give firm direction to national policy. She was the illegitimate daughter of a Paris fermier-general, and was married to a banker, Charles Guillaume Lenormant d'Étoiles. The possibility of his becoming King seemed very remote; the King's oldest son and heir, Louis Le Grand Dauphin, Louis's father and his elder surviving brother were ahead of him in the succession. [77] His new finance minister, Étienne de Silhouette imposed new taxes aimed at the wealthy; taxes on horses, carriages, silk, paintings, coffee and furs, and other luxury goods. The Tsarina of Russia immediately marched her regiments into Poland to support her candidate. However, th… Often a very intelligent man who takes being King seriously has a father who does not seem like his biological father. [69], Machaud D'Arnouville was brought into the government with the sponsorship of d'Argenson, but the two men gradually became rivals and enemies. Louis named the Duke de Choiseul as his minister of foreign affairs on 3 December 1758, following the recommendation of Madame de Pompadour. The King summoned the Parlement to Versailles, where he had his lecture read to them. The King responded by demanding immediate registration, which the Parlement reluctantly granted on 19 May. Louis XV was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of the Duke of Burgundy (1682–1712), and his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy. At the age of four years and eight months, he was, according to the laws of the kingdom, not only the master but … The King of Prussia had died on 31 May and was succeeded by his son Frederick the Great, a military genius with ambitions to expand Prussia's borders. Stanislaus was forced to flee to the fortified port of Danzig (now Gdańsk), while on 5 October Augustus III was crowned in Warsaw.[34]. Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé),[1] was King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. A few months later, he also became the Minister of the Navy, and became the most influential and powerful member of the government. Leading contemporaries thus regarded him as a divine gift, an… However, after the King's death, the nobility demanded and received the restoration of the regional parliaments. [55] When the King had finally recovered his spirits, the Countess of Mailly unwisely introduced the King to her youngest sister, Marie Anne de Mailly, the recent widow of the Marquis de Tournelle. Francis, as the future emperor, would be compensated for the loss of Lorraine by the granting of the Duchy of Tuscany. Poor old Louis the 16th. [119], The French philosophical movement later called the Enlightenment began and gathered force during the reign of Louis XV; In 1746 Diderot published his Pensées philosophiques, followed in 1749 by his Lettres sur les Aveugles and the first volume of the Encyclopédie, in 1751. He became king at the age of five on the death of his great-grandfather Louis XIV in 1715. In May 1716, he opened the Banque Générale Privée ("General Private Bank"), which soon became the Banque Royal. On the morning of 1 May, the Archbishop of Paris arrived, but was kept out of the King's room to avoid alarming him. Reportedly a shy, overweight and somewhat uncouth teenager, his father’s mistress referred to him as a “fat, ill-bred boy.” An Austrian courtier in fact stated, “nature seems to have refused everything to the dauphin.” (1) They weren’t wrong. God, who made you King, will give you all the guidance you need, as long as you have good intentions. François Quesnay was the best-known economist in France. For the next twenty years she was the King's confidante and advisor, helping him choose or demote ministers. The acquisition of Corsica was more complicated. Jeffrey Merrick wrote in 1986, "But those ecclesiastics who not only raised their eyebrows over the sins of the Beloved but also expressed doubts about his policies reflected the corporate attitude of the First Estate more accurately." Another French army invaded Saxony and Hanover, the ancestral home of King George II. To bring the war to an end, Fleury and Charles VI negotiated an ingenious diplomatic solution. Due to Choiseul's sole focus on a war with Britain, he had completely ignored the rest of Europe. The King passed the leadership of the government to a triumvirate of three conservative ministers, led by his Chancellor, René de Maupeou, who had been President of the Parlement from 1763 to 1768. He also downplayed the importance of the French Navy, which would prove be a fatal mistake in future conflicts. The first son had died in 1705, and in 1712 the second son, the duke of Brittany, as well as his father and mother, was carried off by a mysterious disease. For that reason he allowed them to lead him, which contributed to his failure with finance, which was the worse aspect of his reign. From September 1715 until January 1716 he lived in the Château de Vincennes, before moving to the Tuileries Palace. He was responsible for creating the first school for engineers in France at Mézières (1749–50); thanks to the trained engineers, France had the finest system of roads and bridges in Europe. If you think Louis XV was a bad guy, you can’t blame it on his parents—they didn’t live long enough to help raise him. Priests who did not accept Unigenitus were denied the authority to administer last rites to the dying. [123] This statue was located on the Place Louis XV and was torn down during the Revolution. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. This otherwise popular move was marred by the king's indiscreet decision to bring along Marie-Anne de Mailly. One of the first serious conflicts that disturbed the early reign of Louis XV was a battle within the Catholic Church over a Papal Bull called Unigenitus. The first priority of Maupeou was to bring the unruly Parlements under control, and to continue with his program for the modernization of the state. The King's tutor was the Abbé André-Hercule de Fleury, the bishop of Fréjus (and later to become Cardinal de Fleury), who saw that he was instructed in Latin, Italian, history and geography, astronomy, mathematics and drawing, and cartography. [63], On 5 January 1757, as the King was getting into his carriage in the courtyard of the Grand Trianon Versailles, a demented man, Robert-François Damiens, pushed through the King's guards and attacked the King, stabbing him in the side with a small knife. His successor, Philibert Orry, substantially reduced the debt caused by the War of the Spanish Succession, and simplified and made more fair the tax system, though he still had to depend upon the unpopular dixieme, or tax of the tenth of the revenue of every citizen. Historiography suggest the following as possible issue of the King: Note: Both children are officially recognized by their mother's husband, although it is alleged that the King himself was the real father. The arsenals began building new ships; by 1772 the Navy had sixty-six ships of the line, thirty-five frigates, and twenty-one new corvettes. On 10 October 1733, Louis formally declared war against Austria. Updates? The Austrians would give the Duchy of Parma and some other territory to the infant Spanish King, Philippe, while Britain would give France Louisburg and the island of Cape Breton, both in Nova Scotia. However, he was blamed for the many diplomatic, military and economic reverses. One of his chief courtiers, Duford de Cheverny, wrote afterwards: "it was easy to see that when members of the court congratulated him on his recovery, he replied, 'yes, the body is going well', but touched his head and said, 'but this goes badly, and this is impossible to heal.' [6] Louis XIV wanted France to be ruled by his favorite but illegitimate son, Duke of Maine (illegitimate son of Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan), who was in the council. In 1749, the King decided to purge the hospital of Jansenists and corruption, appointed a new "Supérieure" against the will of the administrators, who resigned, then appointed four temporary administrators, and asked the First President of the Parlement of Paris, René Nicolas Charles Augustin de Maupeou, to implement his decree for the reorganization of the hospital. [3] On 12 February 1712 the mother of Louis, Marie Adélaïde, was stricken with measles and died, followed on 18 February by Louis's father, the former Duke of Burgundy, who was next in line for the throne. [25] A new tax, the cinquantième, was levied against religious figures who had previously been exempted from taxation. When he was born, he was named the Duke of Anjou. He participated in the hunt the next day, but rode in his carriage instead of on horseback. Two of his ministers took the most prominent positions in his government; the finance minister, Jean Baptiste de Machault D'Arnouville, and the minister of the armies, Comte d'Argenson. [40] French and Bavarian armies quickly captured Linz and laid siege to Prague. Louis’s tutor, the bishop (later cardinal) André-Hercule de Fleury, replaced Bourbon as chief minister in 1726; and the dynastic connection with Poland led to French involvement against Austria and Russia in the War of the Polish Succession (1733–38). In the end, the 21-year-old Marie Leszczyńska, daughter of Stanislaus I, the deposed king of Poland, was finally chosen. [103], The foreign affairs post had been left vacant by Choiseul, who acted as his own foreign minister. Prussia and the Holy Roman Empire of Charles VI were assembling a scattered but impressive empire far as Serbia in Eastern Europe with territories taken from Ottoman Turkey, and by marriage acquired the Catholic Netherlands (including Belgium), Milan and the Kingdom of Naples. The departure of the Jesuits weakened the church in France, and especially weakened the authority of the King, who, like a constitutional monarch, acted on behalf of the Parliament against his own beliefs.[74]. His reign was marked by the decline of the prestige of the monarchy and the deepening of the crisis that eventually led to the French Revolution.. [136], E. H. Gombrich wrote in 2005, "Louis XV and Louis XVI, the Sun King's [Louis XIV] successors, were incompetent, and content merely to imitate their great predecessor's outward show of power. The King was a proficient amateur astronomer, who collaborated with the best French astronomers. Their members included both hereditary nobles and wealthy citizens who had purchased their seats. Louis XIII, Louis' Father: byname LOUIS THE JUST, French LOUIS LE JUSTE king of France from 1610 to 1643, who cooperated closely with his chief minister, the Cardinal de Richelieu, to make France a leading European power. Voltaire published le Siecle de Louis XIV and l'Essai sur les moeurs et l'esprit des nations in 1756. After two days of reflection, Louis declared, "In these circumstances, I don't want to get involved at all. The final treaty was signed in Paris on 10 February 1763. [68], The Comte d'Argenson served as the Minister of War from 1743 until 1747. In 1740, the King turned his attentions to the sister of Louise-Joulie, Pauline-Félicité, the Marquise de Vintimille, who was married. The Parlements also stood resolutely in the way of financial reform. The king was a notorious womaniser; the monarch's virility was supposed to be another way in which his power was manifested. As a result, by 1763 France had lost to the British almost all her colonial possessions in North America and India. The succession was assured, since the Dauphin had a son, the future Louis XVI, who was of age to rule, but the death put him into a deep depression. Born on February 15, 1710, Louis XV was king of France for 59 years, from February 1715 until his death in May 1774. Louis XIV was born on 5 September 1638 in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye to Louis XIII and Anne of Austria. In 1721 Orléans betrothed Louis to the infanta Mariana, daughter of King Philip V of Spain. He incorporated Corsica into France (1768), and negotiated the marriage of his grandson, the future Louis XVI with Marie Antoinette (1770). [93], Two men had an enormous influence on the economic policies of the King. However, the King's favor turned to Jeanne Bécu, the comtesse du Barry. Under the new decree, instead of a tax, the church would each year collect a comparable sum and donate it freely to the government. Until he attained his legal majority in February 1723, France was governed by a regent, Philippe II, duc d’Orléans. The Jesuits in France numbered 3,500; they had 150 establishments in France, including 85 colleges, which were considered the best in France; their graduates included Voltaire and Diderot. [41], The war in Germany was not going well; the French and Bavarian forces were faced with the combined armies of Austria, Saxony, Holland, Sardinia and Hanover. Although Louis had been popular as le Bien-Aimé (the Well-Beloved) in his youth, he had gradually earned the contempt of his subjects. On 29 October 1740, a courier brought the news to the King, who was hunting in Fontainebleau, that the Emperor Charles VI was dead, and his daughter Maria Theresa was set to succeed him. "[127] Harris added that ministers rose and fell according to his mistresses' opinions, seriously undermining the prestige of the monarchy. Between April and September 1762, the Parlements of Rennes, Bordeaux, Paris and Metz joined in the condemnation, followed in 1763 by Aix, Toulouse, Pau, Dijon and Grenoble. The project soon included a multitude of authors, including Rousseau, and had four thousand subscribers. He was gentle, an excellent father, and the most honest individual in the world. The people reviled the king in popular protest, and finally celebrated his death. Philippe, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies. The King was immediately attracted to Marie-Anne; however, she insisted that he expel her older sister from the Court before she would become his mistress. Martinique fell to the British in 1762. She described the Comtesse as "The most stupid and impertinent creature imaginable". Le Roy Ladurie wrote that the people felt he had reduced the sacred nature of the monarchy, and thereby diminished himself. The new British Prime Minister, William Pitt, named a new commander, Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, and the French armies were gradually pushed back to the Rhine, and defeated again at the Battle of Crefield on 23 June. However, new powers were emerging on the European stage, particularly Russia under Peter the Great and his successor, Catherine I of Russia. He was the King's doctor, and treated Madame de Pompadour, but was also a celebrated economic theorist, whose collected writings, "Tableau Économique" (1758), were avidly read by the King and his Court: Louis referred to him as "my thinker." The Duke's rigid and cold personality did not appeal to the young King, who turned to his old tutor for advice on how to run the affairs of state. English historian William Doyle wrote: The political story....of the reigns of Louis XV and Louis XVI, by contrast, had too often been scorned, and therefore neglected, as a meaningless succession of petty intrigues in boudoirs and bedrooms, unworthy of serious attention when there were economic cycles, demographic fluctuations, rising and falling classes, and deep-seated shifts in cultural values to analyse. Louis had been very much in love with the Queen, and they were inseparable in the early years of his reign, but as his family grew and the Queen was constantly pregnant or exhausted by her maternities, he began to look elsewhere. The King personally removed Diderot from the list of those nominated for the Académie française, and in 1759 the Encyclopédie was formally banned. Louis XV of France and his wife Marie Leszczyńska had a successful marriage and Marie gave birth to ten children, of which eight were daughters. "[98], Choiseul combined his military preparations for war with a diplomatic alliance, the Pacte de Famille or Pact of the Family, which united with other countries ruled by Kings of the Bourbon dynasty; Spain, ruled by Louis's cousin Charles III of Spain, the Naples and Tuscany. [14] Besides his academic studies, He received a practical education in government. In reality it had only one occupant at a time, for brief periods. Bernier argued that these acts would have avoided the French Revolution, but his successor, Louis XVI, reversed his policies. Death appeared imminent, and public prayers were held all across France to ask God to save the king from death. [45], While the new tax was supported by many, including Voltaire, it met immediate and fierce resistance from both the nobility and the church. Nevertheless, Merrick wrote, popular faith in the monarchy was shaken by the scandals of Louis’ private life and by the end of his life he had become despised. After he succeeded to the throne at the age of five, his first cousin twice removed, Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, served as Regent of the kingdom until Louis's majority in 1723. This time the King took action, arresting and replacing the President and leading officers of the Parlement, and replacing them with officers loyal to the King. Stanislaus traveled to Warsaw, where he was crowned King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania on 12 September. Louis's formal style was "Très haut, très puissant et très excellent Prince Louis XV, par la grâce de Dieu, roi de France et de Navarre", or "Most high, most potent and most excellent Prince Louis XV, by the Grace of God, King of France and of Navarre". The French army won the surrender of the British forces of the Duke of Comberland at Closterseven. When the news reached Paris, anxious crowds gathered in the streets. Married on 3 February 1771 to Antoinette-Françoise-Claudine de La Roche-Aymon. Popular legends at the time described it as a kind of harem, organized by Madame de Pompadour, where a group of women were kidnapped and kept for the King's pleasure. In March 1764, the Parlement of Navarre in Pau, the smallest province, refused to accept the taxation authority of the Grand Council of the King. The complaint against the Jesuits was that they were independent of the authority of the King and the hierarchy of the church in France. [117] The King himself, like his grandfather Louis XIV, was taught to dance ballet but danced only once in public, in 1725. When the King became aware of the Duke's intrigue, he abruptly dismissed him and replaced him with de Fleury. After the dismissal of 139 members of provincial parlements for opposing the official government and papal doctrine of Unigenitus, the Parlement of Paris had to register the Unigenitus papal bull and was forbidden to hear religious cases in the future. [88] She was raised by the Dames de Sacre-Coeur, and had various jobs as a shop assistant and designer of dresses before she became the mistress of a self-proclaimed count, Jean du Barry. When the Royal Council blocked the pursuits of the Parlement, the Parlement wrote a protest to the King, declaring, "Sire, your Parlement cannot recognize any intermediate power it and your person; no, your Council has over the Parlement no authority, superiority, or jurisdiction. After the death of the Madame de Pompadour, several women in the court sought to replace her, including the Duchess of Gramont, the sister of the Duke of Choiseul, the King's chief minister. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. He forbade the king to discuss politics with the Queen. I am resolved to make myself obeyed by all available means..." 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