The first rail delivery between Liverpool and Manchester took place on 11 November 1830. The screenplay by Dudley Nichols is an adaptation of "The Stage to Lordsburg", a 1937 short story by Ernest Haycox.The film follows a group of strangers riding on a stagecoach through dangerous Apache territory. The first mail coaches appeared in the later 18th century carrying passengers and the mails, replacing the earlier post riders on the main roads. Today it’s the Old Stagecoach Inn, a historic bed-and-breakfast in the center of downtown Waterbury. However, the 1939 Hollywood epic Stagecoach, directed by John Ford and featuring a young John Wayne, probably did more than anything else to foster modern perceptions of stagecoach travel as both romantic and dangerous. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, The Postman and the Postal Service, Vera Southgate, Wills & Hepworth Ltd, 1965, England, Gerhold: Stage Coaching and Turnpike Roads, Economic History Review, August 2014,, figure 1, p. 825. The business of running stagecoaches or the act of journeying in them was known as staging. Despite its outward success, at the turn of the 19th century Cobb & Co. was as vulnerable as a house of cards, built largely on credit in an economically unstable climate. There were more than 15,000 employees in the Overland Company and 110 Concord Stagecoaches. In the front is a cabriolet fixed to the body of the coach, for the accommodation of three passengers, who are protected from the rain above, by the projecting roof of the coach, and in front by two heavy curtains of leather, well oiled, and smelling somewhat offensively, fastened to the roof. In the end, it was the motor bus, not the train, that caused the final disuse of these horse-drawn vehicles, and many “automobile stage companies” were established in the early 1900s. [10], Steel springs had been used in suspensions for vehicles since 1695. Niven, David. The English visitor noted the small, sturdy Norman horses "running away with our cumbrous machine, at the rate of six or seven miles an hour". [6] The first recorded stagecoach route in Britain started in 1610 and ran from Edinburgh to Leith. [1], Familiar images of the stagecoach are that of a Royal Mail coach passing through a turnpike gate, a Dickensian passenger coach covered in snow pulling up at a coaching inn, and a highwayman demanding a coach to "stand and deliver". The creators of the Concord were J. S. Abbot and Lewis Downing who were so careful with their products that not one stagecoach ever left the factory without their inspection. Critic Reviews for Stagecoach Run. These coaches only operated on certain days and they also carried the mail. The body of the carriage rests upon large thongs of leather, fastened to heavy blocks of wood, instead of springs, and the whole is drawn by seven horses.[18]. Some owners would parade their vehicles and magnificently dressed passengers in fashionable locations. When you turn loose to go under the coach, you've got to bring your arms over your chest and stomach. The last stagecoach robbery in the West was held 5 December 1916 near Jarbidge, Nevada Early coach travel was slow; in 1673, it took eight days to travel by coach from London to Exeter! Holladay had a contract with the United States Post Office that paid $365,000 a year and the Overland transported humans, packages and mail over a 3000 mile area. [7], Robert Hooke helped in the construction of some of the first spring-suspended coaches in the 1660s and spoked wheels with iron rim brakes were introduced, improving the characteristics of the coach. Since 1986, he has offered rides in a replica of a Concord coach, on local trails that were part of the original stagecoach routes in the 1840s and 1850s. Our Story. In France, between 1765 and 1780, the turgotines, big mail coaches named for their originator, Louis XVI's economist minister Turgot, and improved roads, where a coach could travel at full gallop across levels, combined with more staging posts at shorter intervals, cut the time required to travel across the country sometimes by half. Concords had a seat in front, in back, and one in the middle seating nine when full and leaving little leg room, but passengers were also allowed to ride on top. It occurred to him that this stagecoach service could be developed into a national mail delivery service, so in 1782 he suggested to the Post Office in London that they take up the idea. Events featured living history days, tours, lectures, stories, songs and stage equipment displays. © Kathy Weiser / Legends of … They finally created their own detective agency, but the salaries of these officers were so high they matched the amount previously lost in robberies. It is always a mystery to the passenger how many can be wedged into and on top of a stagecoach. R.J. Spillane, 72, operates Stagecoach Trails Livery on County Highway 3 (also called Stagecoach Trails Road) just west of Apple River, in Jo Daviess County. If it had not been for the long stretches when the horses had to walk, enabling most of us to get out and "foot it" as a relaxation, it seems as if we could never have survived the trip. Stagecoach is a 1939 American Western film directed by John Ford and starring Claire Trevor and John Wayne in his breakthrough role. The first stagecoach route started in 1610 and ran from Edinburgh to Leith. Australia's last horse-drawn stagecoach service was run by Cobb & Co from Yuleba to Surat in Queensland on 14 August 1924. The diligence from Le Havre to Paris was described by a fastidious English visitor of 1803 with a thoroughness that distinguished it from its English contemporary, the stage coach. From exchanging gold coins for paper checks to designing online transactions, we’re continually innovating so our customers can get ahead. Widely used before steam-powered, rail transport was available, a stagecoach made long scheduled trips using stage stations or posts where the stagecoach's horses would be replaced by fresh horses. Besant, with his partner John Vidler, enjoyed a monopoly on the supply of stagecoaches to the Royal Mail and a virtual monopoly on their upkeep and servicing for the following few decades. The best and most common way to rob a stagecoach was for the outlaws to wait beside the road on a … A getaway driver comes out of retirement to pull off one last run - one that could send him to an early grave instead. Long-haul stages tended to run 24-hours-a-day, but some stage stops featured overnight accommodations. In the mid-19th century, California-bound mail had to either be taken overland by a 25-day stagecoach or spend months inside a ship during a long sea voyage. The speed of travel remained constant until the mid-18th century. You may later unsubscribe. For more information about the Stagecoach Inn click here. By 1924 – 70 years after it began – Cobb & Co. had barrelled right through the hearts and minds of Australians and into the history books. One of the most famous stagecoach owners and operators was Ben Holladay who traveled in a personalized stagecoach with gold scrollwork and matching dapple-gray horses. It was used as a public conveyance on an established route usually to a regular schedule. Up until the late 18th Century, a stagecoach traveled at an average speed of about 5 miles per hour (8.0 km/h), with the average daily mileage covered being around 60 to 70 miles (97 to 113 km),[4] but with improvements to the roads and the development of steel springs, the speed increased, so that by 1836 the scheduled coach left London at 19:30, travelled through the night (without lights) and arrived in Liverpool at 16:50 the next day, a distance of about 220 miles (350 km), doubling the overall average speed to about 10 miles per hour (16 km/h), including stops to change horses.[5]. Stagecoach Inns and Stations. But history states the Blue Sulphur Springs resort had daily stagecoach runs to Lewisburg and Charleston. It was advertised with the following announcement - "However incredible it may appear, this coach will actually (barring accidents) arrive in London in four days and a half after leaving Manchester." Stagecoaches also became widely adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century and generally travelled at a few miles per hour. View Stagecoach Days 2008 Event Information. In the end, it was actually, the introduction of the automobile that led to the end of the stagecoach in the early 1900s. [19], Beginning in the 18th century crude wagons began to be used to carry passengers between cities and towns, first within New England by 1744, then between New York and Philadelphia by 1756. But all was not necessarily as it seemed. [9] The London-York route was advertised in 1698: Whoever is desirous of going between London and York or York and London, Let them Repair to the Black Swan in Holboorn, or the Black Swan in Coney Street, York, where they will be conveyed in a Stage Coach (If God permits), which starts every Thursday at Five in the morning. Coaches with iron or steel springs were uncomfortable and had short useful lives. A young couple from Boston bought the property in 1985 and rebuilt the house. They came to be known as road coaches and were used by their enterprising (or nostalgic) owners to provide scheduled passenger services where rail had not yet reached and also on certain routes at certain times of the year for the pleasure of an (often amateur) coachman and his daring passengers. In New South Wales the last coach probably ran on the Hebel-Goodooga-Brewarrina routes in 1913 while the last coach ran in Victoria from Casterton to Mount Gambier in 1916. A canvas-topped wagon had a lower center of gravity, and it could not be loaded on the roof with heavy freight or passengers as an enclosed coach so often was. It is strongly sprung and generally drawn by four horses. See Answer. For other uses, see. The riders were frequent targets for robbers, and the system was inefficient. By the early 1840s most London-based coaches had been withdrawn from service.[10]. Passengers were appalled by the dirt and squalor that greeted them at the station. In 2008, festivals and programs were held as part of our Stagecoach Days: 150th Anniversary, recognizing and celebrating the history of the stagecoach. The inside, which is capacious, and lofty, and will hold six people in great comfort is lined with leather padded, and surrounded with little pockets, in which travellers deposit their bread, snuff, night caps, and pocket handkerchiefs, which generally enjoy each others company, in the same delicate depository. The decline of wagon trains in the United States started in 1869, with the completion of the first transcontinental railroad, and wagon trains as a way of migrating essentially ended in the 1890s.. Holladay sold his stagecoach company to Wells Fargo in 1866 to invest in the railroads. Professionals called these vehicles 'butterflies'. After the expiry of his patent most British horse carriages were equipped with elliptic springs; wooden springs in the case of light one-horse vehicles to avoid taxation, and steel springs in larger vehicles. [7] By the mid 17th century, a basic stagecoach infrastructure had been put in place. Around twenty years later in 1880 John Pleasant Gray recorded after travelling from Tucson to Tombstone on J.D. This coach took an unprecedented three days to reach London with an average speed of eight miles per hour. Texas Stage Lines ; Riding The Stage in Old Texas In 1853 stagecoach lines were the main mode of travel from Texas to other parts of the country. To answer the question, did the stagecoach run though Alderson? Violence in Stagecoach Run April 21, 2012 by aturchi90 For being, as I felt (as a person who cannot remember the last time I saw a Western), an unusually lighthearted Western, Stagecoach Run (1936) did not fail to deliver in the violence area. [7], In 1754, a Manchester-based company began a new service called the "Flying Coach". Nettie Spencer died in 1947. The stagecoach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took roughly ten days to make the journey during the summer months. In 1866, Wells Fargo bought out Ben Holladay's expanding network and combined it with the Pioneer and the Overland Mail stagelines to create the largest stagecoach … Our Story Gareth Lewis-Pitt 2019-09-11T09:48:08-07:00. Ben Holladay may have made a wise financial decision when he sold the Overland stage line as railroads soon became the primary method of transporting both humans and cargo, but trains were still confined to their tracks and it was actually the introduction of the automobile that finally brought an end to the use of stagecoaches in the early 1900s. In the end, it was the motor bus, not the train, that caused the final disuse of these horse-drawn vehicles. In his book, “Stagecoach Days in Santa Barbara County, Walker A. Tompkins wrote, “Whips were considered a part of the driver, who kept the lashes well-oiled and as pliable as “a snake in the sun.” Most stagecoach whips had buckskin lashes, usually from 11 to 12 feet in … Elliott mounted each wheel with two durable elliptic steel leaf springs on each side and the body of the carriage was fixed directly to the springs attached to the axles. ... Last Stagecoach services now departing around Gloucester. He met resistance from officials who believed that the existing system could not be improved, but eventually the Chancellor of the Exchequer, William Pitt, allowed him to carry out an experimental run between Bristol and London. Wells Fargo nailed safes to the floorboards of the coaches, hired armed guards to protect shipments and taught silver shippers how to melt their precious metals into bars too large to be carried by men on the run, and still their stagecoaches were robbed. Did stagecoach horses really run as they're depicted to do in the movies or did they walk like the ones that pulled covered wagons? 63 to Fort Springs in the 1940s. A service to Edinburgh was added the next year, and Palmer was rewarded by being made Surveyor and Comptroller General of the Post Office. The banking part of the business continued on totally independent of the express business and is still alive today as the Wells Fargo Union Trust Company. Travel time was reduced on this later run from three days to two in 1766 with an improved coach called the Flying Machine. Stagecoach Events [footer] History. While stagecoaches vanished as rail penetrated the countryside the 1860s did see the start of a coaching revival spurred on by the popularity of Four-in-hand driving as a sporting pursuit (the Four-In-Hand Driving Club was founded in 1856 and the Coaching Club in 1871). These owners were (often very expert) amateur gentlemen-coachmen, occasionally gentlewomen. Every stagecoach route in Texas stretched along a series of stopping points where drivers could hitch on a fresh team in 10 minutes and be on their way again. A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public coach used to carry paying passengers and light packages on journeys long enough to need a change of horses. By the end of the 17th century stagecoach routes ran up and down the three main roads in England. This was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the island. [note 1] A professional coachman might accompany them to avert disaster. The speed of coaches in this period rose from around 6 miles per hour (including stops for provisioning) to 8 miles per hour[15] and greatly increased the level of mobility in the country, both for people and for mail. [13] Coachbuilder Obadiah Elliott obtained a patent covering the use of elliptic springs - which were not his invention. In Hollywood movies, stagecoach rides offer cozy seats and grand views, but in reality, travel by stagecoach was uncomfortable and sometimes dangerous. - For those who want to understand the History, not just to read it. The postal delivery service in Britain had existed in the same form for about 150 years—from its introduction in 1635, mounted carriers had ridden between "posts" where the postmaster would remove the letters for the local area before handing the remaining letters and any additions to the next rider. [21], The railway network in South Africa was extended from Mafeking through Bechuanaland and reached Bulawayo in 1897. [16], The development of railways in the 1830s spelled the end for stagecoaches and mail coaches. A stagecoach is a four-wheeled public coach used to carry paying passengers and light packages on journeys long enough to need a change of horses. The first crude depiction of a coach was in an English manuscript from the 13th century. For generations, we’ve been helping people go further. Each route had an average of four coaches operating on it at one time - two for both directions and a further two spares in case of a breakdown en route. The amateur bandit Pearl Hart and her boyfriend hold up an Arizona stagecoach on May 30, 1899. The Concord Stagecoach was built like a basket on leather straps that swung from side to side, weighed more than a ton, and cost somewhere between $1500 and $1800. Michael J. Graves Belen, New Mexico. His coach had a greatly improved turning capacity and braking system, and a novel feature that prevented the wheels from falling off while the coach was in motion. One of the horses was ridden by the postilion. Spent horses were replaced with fresh horses at stage stations, posts, or relays. That’s Hollywood stuff. Wells Fargo’s Great Overland Mail. Joseph Ballard described the stagecoach service between Manchester and Liverpool in 1815 as having price competition between coaches, with timely service and clean accommodations at inns. It is strongly sprung and generally drawn by four horses. Three times a day, passengers could get a hurried meal. Bandits were a constant threat and undoubtedly viewed stagecoach passengers like cats watching birds in a cage. At this speed stagecoaches could compete with canal boats, but they were rendered obsolete in Europe wherever the rail network expanded in the 19th century. You may later unsubscribe. According to The Story of the Great American West, Concord coaches came in various heavily varnished, bright colors and various sizes, as well.They were 8 1/2 feet long (now imagine the space inside of the coach), weighed 2500 pounds, which could be deadly if they tipped over on a road, and cost around $1300 depending on the amount of detail. Critic Reviews for Stagecoach Run. The diligence (dilly for short), a solidly built coach with four or more horses, was the French analogue for public conveyance, especially in France, with minor varieties in Germany such as the Stellwagen and Eilwagen. And last, east on Rt. With George C. Scott, Tony Musante, Trish Van Devere, Colleen Dewhurst. Little is known about Pearl Hart’s early life. They built their first Concord stagecoach in 1827 employing long leather straps under their stagecoaches which gave a swinging motion.[20]. On long trips, passengers generally slept sitting up or not at all since it was considered bad etiquette to rest ones head on another passenger. Top Answer. The horses were changed three times on the 80-mile (130 km) trip, normally completed in 17 hours. His travel from Bath to London took a single day to the mail's three days. The home was later run as a rooming house and fell into disrepair. Yakima Canutt explained how the stunt was accomplished where, as an Apache warrior attacking the stagecoach, he is "shot", falls off his horse, and then gets dragged underneath the stagecoach: "You have to run the horses fast, so they'll run straight. The last run went to Rawhide, Nevada, about 1909. Stagecoach travel could be dangerous, too. [14], Steady improvements in road construction were also made at this time, most importantly the widespread implementation of Macadam roads up and down the country. Nevertheless, the company felt some satisfaction in knowing justice was served when famous robbers such as John Sontag and Black Bart were apprehended or killed. His stagecoach drivers wore velvet-trimmed uniforms and Irish wool overcoats, and Holladay paid them well. … Stagecoach have already confirmed that the 69 service that serves Stroud, Minchinhampton and Tetbury, is unlikely to run tomorrow. His patent lasted 14 years delaying development because Elliott allowed no others to license and use his patent. The last American chapter in the use of the stage coaches took place between 1890 and about 1915. How Bachelor Nation Turns Stagecoach Into an Unofficial Reunion For country music's biggest festival, reality stars from ABC's reality show can't help … The novelty of this method of transport excited much controversy at the time. Within the month the service had been extended from London to Norwich, Nottingham, Liverpool and Manchester, and by the end of 1785 services to the following major towns and cities of England and Wales had also been linked: Leeds, Dover, Portsmouth, Poole, Exeter, Gloucester, Worcester, Holyhead and Carlisle.